Nexus Between Technology, Education, Income, and Social Capital in Top 10 Terrorism Affected Countries: The Leading Role of Corruption

Authors

  • Muhammad Sibt e Ali Zhengzhou University, Henan. Author
  • Muhammad Zahir Faridi Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. Author
  • Muhammad Ramzan Sheikh Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. Author
  • Kashif Javed Zhengzhou University, Henan. Author
  • Muhammad Qasim Javaid Zhengzhou University, Henan. Author

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.62345/jads.2024.13.1.50

Keywords:

Technology, Education, Terrorism, Social Capital, Physical Capital

Abstract

There is a strong correlation between the expansion of institutions in nations with advanced educational systems and an increase in the frequency and severity of terrorist attacks. This trend remains substantial even after accounting for factors like per capita income, political stability, unemployment, inequality, and urbanization. This is when the frequency and severity of terrorist attacks appear to be at their highest. Therefore, this study analyzes the impacts of terrorism on education in the top 10 terrorist countries between 2010 and 2020. This study considers the determinants of education (EDU): GDP per capita, terrorism, social capital, technology and physical capital. The study employs FMOLS estimation and the DOLS test to check the results of variables in this study. The effect of GDP per capita, social capital, and physical capital significantly positively impact education in this model. However, terrorism and technology have a negative impact on education. Moreover, the moderate effect of terrorism on social capital, technology and physical capital is negatively related to education. On behalf of the results, this study proposes how a country can maximize education.

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Author Biographies

  • Muhammad Sibt e Ali, Zhengzhou University, Henan.

    Business School, Zhengzhou University, Henan, China. Email: ali4bzu@gmail.com

  • Muhammad Zahir Faridi, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.

    Professor, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan. Email: zahirfaridi@bzu.edu.pk

  • Muhammad Ramzan Sheikh, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.

    Professor, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan. 
    Email: ramzansheikh@bzu.edu.pk

  • Kashif Javed, Zhengzhou University, Henan.

    School of Law, Zhengzhou University, Henan, China. Email: Kashifjaved777@gmail.com

  • Muhammad Qasim Javaid, Zhengzhou University, Henan.

    Business School, Zhengzhou University, Henan, China. Email: qasim939@yahoo.com 

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Published

2024-02-28

How to Cite

Nexus Between Technology, Education, Income, and Social Capital in Top 10 Terrorism Affected Countries: The Leading Role of Corruption. (2024). Journal of Asian Development Studies, 13(1), 599-613. https://doi.org/10.62345/jads.2024.13.1.50

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