Revisiting Trade, Energy and Growth Nexus in Portugal: An Empirical Evidence from ARDL Approach


  • Sabahat Riaz Minhaj University Lahore. Author
  • Arifa Saeed Greenwich University, Karachi. Author
  • Muhammad Mudassar Naushahi University of Management and Technology, Lahore. Author
  • Marie G. Nakitende Uganda Martyrs University, Uganda. Author



Economic Growth, Trade, Energy, Consumer Prices, Portugal, ARDL Approach


This research is aimed at revisiting the trade, energy, and growth nexus for Portugal. This nexus will be tested by considering the cointegration test developed by Pesaran et al. (2001). An annual data series from 1986-2022 will be used for analysis. The empirical results suggest that trade openness significantly increases economic activities in Portugal. The results further show that capital formation, energy consumption, and consumer prices also elevate domestic production. Among all these factors, trade openness strongly impacts economic growth. It is further stated that these findings are robust based on all the applied diagnostic tests. Based on these findings, investments should be enhanced to boost trade, capital, and energy so Portugal can enjoy increased economic activities. Besides this, domestic prices may be boosted in such a way that it may not harm the buying power of the buyers but may help improve domestic production and economic growth.


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Author Biographies

  • Sabahat Riaz, Minhaj University Lahore.

    Lecturer, School of Commerce and Accountancy, Minhaj University Lahore. Email:

  • Arifa Saeed, Greenwich University, Karachi.

    Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Finance, Greenwich University, Karachi.

  • Muhammad Mudassar Naushahi, University of Management and Technology, Lahore.

    PhD Scholar, Department of Economics and Quantitative Methods, University of Management and Technology, Lahore. Corresponding Author Email:

  • Marie G. Nakitende, Uganda Martyrs University, Uganda.

    Senior Lecturer, Uganda Martyrs University, Uganda. Email:




How to Cite

Revisiting Trade, Energy and Growth Nexus in Portugal: An Empirical Evidence from ARDL Approach. (2024). Journal of Asian Development Studies, 13(1), 755-763.

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