Tense and Aspect in Balti Language: Morphological Perspective


  • Farvah Maryam Hamdard University, Karachi Author
  • Salma Niazi Jinnah Women University, Karachi. Author
  • Ajab Ali Lashari University of Sindh Jamshoro. Author




Root Verbs, Tense Markers, Morphology


Pakistan is a multilingual and multicultural country where 72 language diverse languages are used for communication. Gilgit-Baltistan is one of the most well-known northern regions for its stunning natural beauty, distinct landscapes, evergreen forests, snow-capped mountains, and rich cultural heritage. Most of the Gilgit-Baltistan regional languages have been studied historically and culturally, but a few studies address this from a linguistic perspective. Balti language is one of them. Balti is a member of the more extraordinary Tibeto-Burman language family, specifically the Western Tibetan branch of the Tibetan language family. The present study analyses the tense and aspect markers in the Balti language. This study contributes to the regional language of Pakistan and analyzes the language in the morphological domain that is not mostly touched yet; also, studying tense and aspect markers in the Balti language from a morphological perspective is crucial for understanding the language’s nuances within temporal expressions. The present study results show that Balti has a complex system of tense and aspect markers; using the qualitative research design, n= 50 root words (verbs) were collected from the Balti language within the framework of inflectional morphemes of tense markers for this study. Nine markers for tense and some of their aspect, including eḑ, en, s, yoḑ, and yoḑpə: set̪, ʊk, t̪ʊk, and sed̪ʊkt̪ʊk, are identified in the current study. These markers are attached to the corresponding root verbs to indicate the present simple, present progressive, past simple with progressive, future simple, and future participle. The study also develops a deep understanding of various future tense markers as connectors to root words based on the consonant and vowel sounds at the end of root words. 


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Author Biographies

  • Farvah Maryam, Hamdard University, Karachi

    Cooperative Lecturer & MPhil Scholar at Hamdard University, Karachi

  • Salma Niazi, Jinnah Women University, Karachi.

    Lecturer, Jinnah Women University, Karachi.

  • Ajab Ali Lashari, University of Sindh Jamshoro.

    PhD Scholar, IELL, University of Sindh Jamshoro. Corresponding Author Email: farvah.abbasjuw@gmail.com




How to Cite

Tense and Aspect in Balti Language: Morphological Perspective. (2024). Journal of Asian Development Studies, 13(1), 795-803. https://doi.org/10.62345/jads.2024.13.1.66

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